Queen Victoria

Queen Victoria was the longest reigning monarch of Great Britain, only after the present Queen Elizabeth II, having ruled for 64 years from 1837 to 1901. She was the daughter of Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and Prince Edward, Duke of Kent. She lost her parents at a very young age. She was fifth in the line of succession and ascended the throne at the age of 18, when her brothers before her died without heirs.


Three years after becoming queen, Victoria married Prince Albert of Germany. Their nine children married the children of various nobles and royal families, including Russia, thus dubbing her the “Grandmother of Europe”.

She is associated with what is known to-day as the Queen Victoria Proclamation. This was issued on 01 January 1858, regarding the the Revolt of 1857 in most parts of northern and Deccan India. She received the title “Empress of India” in the year 1876.

Queen Victoria has also been credited with starting the tradition of white weddings and white bridal gowns when she selected a white gown for her wedding to Prince Albert. This was quickly carried on by wealthy brides and continues to this day.

Queen Victoria was a carrier of haemophilia. Haemophilia is a disease that prevents the clotting of blood even in the smallest of wounds. The queen, as a carrier, was not affected, but eventually, her future great-grandson, Alexei, heir to the throne of the Russian Empire, and the youngest son of the last Tsar Nicholas II, was haemophilic. Most often, it is women who carry this disease, so a male affected by it would be as a result of his mother being the carrier. In Alexei’s case, it was his mother, Tsarina Alexandra (granddaughter of Queen Victoria), who was the carrier.

Queen Victoria was so committed to her husband that, when Albert died in 1861, she became very depressed and reclusive, to the point of nearly abandoning her subjects. Nonetheless, she eventually managed to pull through and rule for the next 40 years. She was a such an influence in the British society that the period of reign is referred to as the “Victorian era“. Women and girls looked up to her for a lot of things. An entire set of social mannerisms has been attributed to her by historians to-day.

Images from History Extra and Town & Country Magazine. 


My Opinion About Introducing English in India

As a historian, this is just an opinion: Maybe Lord Macaulay introduced English in India with some foresight that English would become a global language.

Think about it. He introduced English in India somewhere between 1835 and 1840. What was the position of Britain at the time? It had more or less the whole world at its feet. And Britain’s official language was English. Naturally, English would be dominant at this time. There was no way Britain would lose hold of these territories in the near future; its power was too great.

Am I supporting Lord Macaulay? No. I’m merely looking at the issue with a neutral mindset. Macaulay could’ve encouraged the Indian languages, alongside English, but let’s face it: he was loyal mostly to the British people.

So yea, not an entirely negative action, eh?

Please comment below your opinions; but let’s make this a constructive discussion, eh? 

Krishna and the Avatars of Vishnu

We went to a Krishna temple this Saturday, just for some peace and quiet. (Well, we were supposed to go to a park, but I fell asleep and woke up too late.) Here’s a view of the sunset from the hill where the temple is.

This post began because a friend of mine online asked me about it.

In the Hindu mythology, there are three major gods, much like the three major gods of the Greek Civilisation. These are: Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva. Brahma is known as the creator, Vishnu the preserver, and Shiva the destroyer. They are the main trinity people following Hinduism worship.

Perhaps due to the nature of his job, Vishnu tended to be born on Earth as some form of living creature; it often happened when the humanity was on the verge of grave danger or destruction. These are called avatars of Vishnu. In Sanskrit, he is said to have “Dasavatar” – that is ten avatars or forms. That means, he was to be reborn on Earth ten times to preserve and cherish humanity. Interestingly, the tenth form is yet to be revealed – nobody knows what it is or the story behind it, because it hasn’t happened yet. It is said the Vishnu will come in his tenth form when the world is about to end. So, it figures, I guess.

Krishna was supposed to have been the eighth form of Vishnu, born to a royal couple – Queen Devaki and King Vasudeva – of the Yadava clan in a place called Mathura (to-day, located in northern India, in the state of Uttar Pradesh). Unlike most of his other forms, Krishna is well aware of his divine status from his birth and manages to astonish a lot of people around him with his supernatural powers. He was born at a time when Devaki’s brother, Kamsa, overthrew her husband and took a tyrannical hold over the kingdom. There was, however, a prophecy that stated a child of Vasudeva would one day be Kamsa’s undoing. Hence, Kamsa starts keeping tabs on this royal couple, whom he had thrown in his dungeon; the moment he finds out that Devaki is pregnant, he ensures to kill the baby as soon as it is born.

Devaki, the mother that she is, prays very hard to the gods that her next child shouldn’t be killed by Kamsa. At the end of this segment of the legend, three children are kept alive – the seventh Balrama, the eighth Krishna, and the nineth Subhadra. (That means, Devaki was supposed to have given birth nine times.) Balrama features a lot in the stories about the life of Krishna, but Subhadra is mentioned the most only in the Indian epic, The Mahabharata, written by Veda Vyasa, a sage in Ancient India.

The eighth child, Krishna, grows up in secret, in a village called Gokulam, adopted by Nanda and his wife, Yashoda. When he comes of age, he realises the prophecy he was born with; he goes to the royal palace to challenge Kamsa, who is still the same tyrannic ruler with Krishna’s parents in lockup. Kamsa gladly accepts the challenge. After a good long struggle, Krishna kills Kamsa and frees his parents.

Krishna eventually becomes the ruler of Mathura and becomes a major character in The Maharabharata, helping the sons of Pandu gain their kingdom back from their cousins, the sons of Dasaratha.

To-day, Krishna is worshipped as a deity and many temples have been constructed in his honour. There is also Krishna Janmasthami – the birth of Krishna, or his birthday – that is celebrated by some faithful followers. Krishna also features in a lot of other legends and myths in Hinduism.

I’ll probably explain more on Krishna’s life and romances in later blog posts; this was just supposed to highlight his existence and some major points about his life as we know it. Honestly, I don’t even know what the truth around him is – was he really an avatar of god? – did he really have supernatural powers? – do gods really exist? – but I choose to see him only as a human being. Who knows what is truly correct and truly incorrect when something dates as long a time as a few thousand BCE? Things tend to get too filtered and watered down, exaggerated by people who tell them. It’s like the game of Chinese whisper: the sentence or word the starting person has said becomes warped into something else entirely by the person who ends it! After all, these stories may not have been written down, but passed on orally by people, possibly poets and tradesmen, who are by nature known to exxagerate everything they see and hear, just for aesthetic purposes. Don’t creative people do that to-day, too? They make very good stories, right?

The difference is, with to-day’s stories, we are able to tell what is completely fictional – the price tag tells us that – but with ancient legends, nobody really knows. No real evidence has been found so far, for all I know. There has been some archaeological evidence that suggests Krishna was based on the legend of another man or deity named Vasudeva. Or possibly a combination of several gods.

No matter, it is always nice to listen to and read stories about legendary characters like Krishna. They are usually filled with moral values that we can learn from and teach from. Also, they tend to contain some amount of truth about the history of that region to which we have concrete evidences.

That’s all for to-day. See you all in my next post!

Why Indians Celebrate Republic Day

On 26 January every year, Indians celebrate Republic Day. For this year, I wrote a poem about it on my main blog that you can find here. It is based on my knowledge and research about the nationalist movement and the independence and post-independence period of Indian history.

Now, in this History blog, I’m going to answer some questions one may have the Indian Republic Day:

Why do Indians celebrate Republic Day?

When was the first Republic Day?

How was the first Republic Day celebrated?

Why was 26 January chosen as the Republic Day of India?

What is known as India to-day was once just a large subcontinent – a part of the continent of Asia. There was actually no country then; it was just a mass piece of land in the world’s largest continent. This sub-continent had been a source of rich wealth in many ways… and that came with a price. Over the centuries, many leaders from other parts of Asia and Europe invaded this sub-continent at various points of time and plundered Indian wealth and treasure. The end of this came when Europeans entered India in the 15th-16th centuries as traders and, a few years later, colonised it.

There were four major groups of Europeans who were prevalent in India at one point – the Dutch, the Portuguese, the British, and the French – who fought each other over territorial occupation. It was finally the British who came out victorious in this series of battles; the French and the Portuguese managed to retain their hold over minor parts of the subcontinent, namely Goa, Daman and Diu, and Pondicherry. These were in fact tiny parts in comparison to the huge portions that the British won.

Indians didn’t keep quiet though, especially not the kings who ruled various parts of the subcontinent. First, there was the 1806 Vellore Revolt in the region that is to-day called Tamil Nadu, then the all-India Revolt of 1857. The latter took the British colonisers completely by surprise and scared the heck out of them for months, before they manage to call reinforcements and fight back. In the end, in both the revolts, it was the British who won and the Indians who lost. However, this did not discourage the Indians–they in fact resorted to get on the good side of the British government and passively make them change their minds and leave India. The British, too, learnt their lesson with the 1857 Revolt and decided they didn’t want it to repeat. Hence, they jointly formed the Indian National Congress (INC), which is now a major political party in the present-day India. The INC underwent a lot of internal changes and divisions to become what it is to-day, even after independence.

Two centuries later, in 1947, the British finally left the subcontinent, but not without partitioning on the basis of religion. The reason for this is a long story – which I shan’t get into now – but it is very similar to the issue in Palestine in the pre-war era. For now, think that India met a fate the same as Palestine.

So, on 15 August 1947, at the stroke of midnight, India received its independence from the British rule.

However, things did not end there. There was a political void, an economic and financial crisis, and social instability. Riots between Hindus and Muslims were everywhere throughout the country. There had to be stable government and constitution to bring the country to some form of order and normalcy.

Hence, since 1946, when it was evident that India would finally get its sovereignty, a group of politicians and intellectuals were elected to form the Indian Constituent Assembly. Dr B R Ambedkar headed this committee. They spent nearly three years trying to gather information and examples from other existing constitutions across the world – and finally, on  26 November 1949, after several revisions, the final draft of the Constitution of India was ready to be released.

The next year, on 26 January 1950, the then Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru formally addressed the Indian citizens and officially declared the Indian Constitution to the world. Why 26 January? Because it was on this day in 1930 that the INC had declared “Poorna Swaraj” (total independence) of India, as part of its nationalist movement. So, to honour that day, the Constitution of India was officially released to the public on that day.

It is therefore safe to consider that 26 January 1950 was the day when India celebrated its first Republic Day. It was also on this day that the post of the Governor-General, a British-created post, was abolished and in its place, the post of the President of India was introduced. Dr Rajendra Prasad was elected to hold this position for the very first time.

Every Republic Day is celebrated with a parade in Delhi along the Kartavya Path. In 1950, the venue of this parade was at the Irwin Amphitheatre, now called Major Dhyan Chand National Stadium, and was led by the then Brigadier of the Gorkha Regiment, Moti Sagar. The then President of Indonesia, Sukarno, was invited to be the chief guest of this event. Sukarno was one of the five founders of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), alongwith Nehru.

So, this much has answered all the questions I have listed in the beginning of this article. I shall definitely speak more about the parts I skipped out. And hopefully, I shall be on time the next time onwards, LOL. Thanks a lot for reading this article and hope you have learnt something from it. My idea for this blog is to reveal the history of India, which is surprisingly unknown to many people across the world, even the Indians themselves.

I can’t help but do some advertising here about my fiction-writing. You can follow my main blog and/or check out my author website.

Bye! See you in next blog post!

Fun Historical Facts About India!

  1. Everybody in the ancient world knew about the natural numbers – 1 to 100. Even the Romans came up with symbols for them – I to C. But it was Aryabhatta, an ancient Indian mathematician, who invented and implemented the concept of “Zero”, the most useful one that the entire world uses even to-day!
  2. The Indus Valley Civilisation – also known as the Harappan Civilisation – that existed in the ancient territorial boundaries of India was the first to ever use a proper toilet system.
  3. Ancient India was the first to ever pratice yoga, now a great concept followed in the western part of the world.
  4. The oldest universities in the world are set to have been in India, the best known being the Nalanda University. There were foreigners who came just to study here with the best of faculty and resources, which they later wrote about and spread to the rest of the world. Examples were Fa-Hein and Xuang Zang.
  5. According to the exisiting ancient texts, unlike the modern India, ancient India accepted homosexuality and even spoke about them as easily as they did about heterosexual partnership.
  6. The “Kama Sutra”, an ancient Indian text on sexuality and the philosophy of love, was written around 400 BCE.
  7. Charaka, an ancient Indian physician, was the one who developed Ayurveda, the first form of medicine to ever be practiced in India.
  8. It is said that the game of chess was played by Krishna and his consort, Radha, in ancient India.
  9. India was once known to be very wealthy and this attracted a lot of inquisitive traders as well as invaders.
  10. Bhaskaracharya was the first mathematician to calculate the the time taken by the Earth to orbit around the Sun.


  1. Fun Facts About Ancient India – WorldAtlas
  2. 15 Amazing Facts About Ancient India You Probably Didn’t Know Before Now (indianyug.com)
  3. Ancient India Facts – Interesting Facts on Society, Religion, Science etc (culturalindia.net)
A detailed painting of Louis XVI by Joseph Siffred Duplessis Chateau

Facts Galore: The French Revolution

What is a revolution? 

Perhaps readers with Science background would reply that the course of the Earth around the Sun is called a revolution. However, in History, the term takes on a whole different meaning. The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines a revolution as “a sudden, radical, or complete change” and “a fundamental change in political organization”. Throughout the course of history, there have been incidents of these sudden changes. An avid student of History would list the two most famous of them all—that is, the French Revolution and the Russian Revolution.

This article is going to deal with some facts regarding the French Revolution. It occurred in the year 1789. It successfully overthrew a regime that had reduced itself to lavish partying and spending extravagantly on luxurious wealth, while the common man suffered with a heavy tax burden on his head. The following are some of the lesser-known facts about the Revolution and the Bourbon dynasty (the name of the ruling dynasty that was overthrown):

  1. France was the most powerful kingdom in Europe. Under the Bourbon kings, it was the most populous, the wealthiest, and thus, the most powerful. Louis XIV and Louis XV, the predecessors of the last Bourbon king, had an iron fist over his subjects. They were the ones who brought in the concept of divine rule and divine law in France. In other words, the king’s words were the law and defying him would be like defying god, which was unthinkable at the time.
  1. The French population was divided into three estates. The king was equivalent to the divine entity and under him were the rest of the population of France. The First Estate consisted of the Church and the clergy, the Second Estate consisted of the nobles, and the Third Estate consisted of the common people. Naturally, the Third Estate was the largest.
  1. The French Revolution was the first in the history of the world to have impacted every nation on a wide scale. In fact, every nationalist leader based most of their ideology on the ideas of the French Revolution. The impact was so vast that it was remembered and passed on for generations after the end of the Revolution. In the 19th Century, Indian nationalist leaders, like Raja Ram Mohan Roy, were greatly influenced by it. It also fuelled the Russian Revolution in 1917.
  1. A lot of women took part in the Revolution. History is replete with scores of women participating in the political arena one way or another, but they seem to be mentioned very rarely in the accounts. One woman that holds some prominence in the events immediately succeeding the French Revolution is Olympe de Gouges. The revolutionaries pressured King Louis XVI to form a constitution. It was drafted by the National Assembly in 1791 and it greatly limited the absolute power of the monarch. Alongside this, the Assembly also drafted the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (freedom of speech, right to life, etc.). Olympe de Gouges was the one to protest against the latter, as they excluded the women from attaining basic rights that each human being was entitled to. Her actions later led to her execution in 1793.
  1. King Louis XVI survived the Revolution. He and his Queen, Marie Antoinette, weren’t executed till after the revolution, when the Jacobins took over the French government. It was now converted into a republic with a constitution and the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen. The last King and Queen of France were executed in the year 1793, on different days.

Historical Personalities in Short: Mary, Queen of Scots

  • Mary, Queen of Scots is one of the most famous queens of Europe. Her story is the most fascinating and controversial in History. She is not to be confused with Mary I, Queen of England, also known as “Bloody Mary”; Mary I was the daughter of Catherine of Aragon and Henry Tudor, the half-sister of Elizabeth I. Mary of Scots is Mary Stuart.

    Mary Queen of Scots

    Image By François Clouet – YQExprz3sIBJ8A at Google Cultural Institute maximum zoom level, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=22127280

  • Mary, the only child of King James V of Scotland and Mary of Guise, was born on 8 December 1542. Her father died shortly after, making her the heir to Scotland’s throne at such a tender age.
  • In the year 1548, Mary of Scots was promised to Francis, the Dauphin of France, as a political agreement. She married him in April 1558, at the age of fifteen; he was fourteen at the time of the wedding. Francis, however, died two years later, in December 1560, leaving her with no children. Queen Mary loved Prince Francis so dearly that she had written a poem about him during her mourning. Her relationship with Francis was probably the only one she cherished the most.
  • Her mother, Mary of Guise, had been ruling Scotland till Mary came back. When she passed away in 1560, Mary took over as the Queen of Scotland. At this time, Elizabeth I, one of Henry VIII’s daughters, had taken over as Queen of England. Mary and Elizabeth were related through Henry, who was her grand-uncle.
  • Mary’s second marriage was to her cousin, Henry Stuart, the Earl of Darnley, in July 1565, with whom she had a son named James VI of Scotland. Henry Stuart was eventually killed under mysterious circumstances in an explosion in February 1567. She was thus relieved of this marriage, since she had grown to fear Henry. Was she the one who orchestrated it?

  • Shortly after, in May 1567, Mary of Scots was forced to marry James Hepburn, Lord of Bothwell, which allowed for a rebellion to rise against her. James was sent into exile and Mary was obliged to abdicate in favour of her son; she was imprisoned in Lochleven Castle, Kinross-shire. Although she managed to escape from here in 1568, she was eventually defeated near Glasgow in the Battle of Langside. She went to England, hoping to seek help from her cousin, Elizabeth I; she certainly did not expect to be imprisoned, instead, for 19 years.
  • Tired of captivity, she tried to plan a joint rule with her son, James, but he had already allied himself with Elizabeth, thus breaking her heart and all her hopes. In 1585, he made an official announcement of his allegiance.
  • By 1586, Mary was entangled in a ploy to assassinate Queen Elizabeth, which sealed her fate: She was tried for treason and declared guilty. In 1587, she was executed. She was 44 years old at this time and was said to have faced her death courageously, despite being discarded by both her own country and her son.


  1. Life and deathline of Mary, Queen of Scots
  2. Mary, Queen of Scots (r.1542-1567) | The Royal Family 
  3. Mary, Queen of Scots – Wikipedia 

Balkanatolia – A New Continent Rediscovered?

While researching for another article for this very blog, I came across a very instresting phenomenon, a news that popped up from February of this year (2022).

A new continent called Balkanatolia had been unearthed earlier this year by a team of geologists and palaentologists consisting of Turkish, French, and Americans. It is considered to have been a forgotten continent, laying low for centuries, blissfully undiscovered. It is said that it existed around 50 million years ago (during the Eocene epoch), situated in such a way that it separated Europe from Asia. The team found out that it was inhabited by flowers and animals that can neither be found on Asia nor on Europe!

It is possibly a forgotten continent; it has been named “Balkanatolia”, because its discovery to-day spans a region that covers the Balkans and Anatolia.

This is great news to the history and the biological world! I myself was fascinated and was driven to learn more about it.

Here are some sources I have found so far:

  1. Balkanatolia – Wikipedia
  2. Balkanatolia: the forgotten continent that sheds light on the evolution of mammals | CNRS
  3. Balkanatolia: Forgotten Continent Discovered by Team of Paleontologists and Geologists (scitechdaily.com)
  4. Balkanatolia: The insular mammalian biogeographic province that partly paved the way to the Grande Coupure – ScienceDirect

Stay tuned for more history!

Moment of Truth #4 – It Wasn’t Really All That Long Ago

When we say that Napoleon Bonaparte came to power in 1804 CE, we tend to imagine it happened a long, long time ago. While technically that is true, it really, really isn’t.

I mean, 1804 is 19th century and that was 200 years ago. Correct.

But it is far more recent compared to 1800 BCE, right?

I mean, History began the minute the Earth was formed; human history began since the time of human evolution. These events in themselves occured millions of years ago. The first humans who lived in caves existed millions of years ago! So, in comparison, don’t you think that Napoleon’s seizure of French power was recent? – just two hundred years ago! And certainly much, much older than the book you read or the TV show you completed less than a week ago!

It wasn’t all that time ago when USA got its independence in 1776.

It wasn’t really all that time ago when the French Revolution took place in 1789.

It wasn’t really all that time ago when Napoleon became the King of France in 1804.

It wasn’t really all that time ago when the soliders in the Indian subcontinent rose against the British colonisers in 1857.

It wasn’t really all that time ago when Europe colonised Africa.

It wasn’t really all that time ago when the Indian National Congress was founded.

It wasn’t really all that time ago when the First World War began.

It wasn’t really all that time ago when the Great Depression took over the world.

It wasn’t really all that time ago when the Second World War began.

It wasn’t really all that time ago when the Cold War began.

It wasn’t really all that time ago when Margaret Thatcher became the first woman Prime Minister of UK.

Universally, an event is considered to be historical when it had happened 30 years ago. Hence, when something happened in 1999 cannot be considered historical, until the end of 2029. When happened in 1991, though, is now historical.

There, History doesn’t seem that far away now, does it? Yes, it impactedm our lives now. The World Wars still have impact to-day – the world in general is still offended by Hitler and his Nazism. The events that are considered History are still showing up in different aspects, such as casteism in India: Even to-day, the Brahmin caste feels superior to the others. It’s all in the past, but yet, we haven’t let these rest; our reasons are our own.


Want to read more diverse writing from me? You can follow my parent blog here.

Ancient Civilisations: The Indus Valley

One might wonder how the world would have looked like to-day if Britain never invaded and colonised so many areas across the world.

Would the natives still have been able to install railways and telephones? Would they think of preserving ancient artefacts that they happened to find rather than use them for themselves? Would they have discovered ancient civilisations on their own and be able to tell the world about them?

I like to think they could, but I have serious doubts about Indians – from what I have observed, most of them seem to not give a shit about their past; instead, they want what’s on the other, seemingly greener side. Or maybe they would’ve been a little more concerned than that.

To-day, I am here to tell the world about a certain civilisation that was discovered accidentally by a British soldier in South Asia, in a land that used to be the Indian subcontinent. Before this discovery, it was thought that the Vedic Age was the oldest civilisation in the region – around 1500 BCE. The discovery of the ancient site at Harappa, in present-day Pakistan, set the history of civilisation in the subcontinent back about two centuries!

Well, yes, India had a civilisation that was one of the oldest in the world. Yes, it came before the Greeks.

Harappa is a place along the Indus river. By nomen clature, this civilisation came to known as ‘Harappan Civilisation’ or ‘Indus Valley Civilisation’.

Its known contemporaries were civilisations in the Mesopotamia and Egypt, regions with which evidence says the Harappans had trade connections.

Not a lot is known about the Harappan culture, economy, and society, because it language still, to this day, remains undeciphered. Historians and linguists have tried attributing it to Sanskrit and Tamil, but neither has stuck. Perhaps it was a whole new language altogether?

Despite this hurdle, there is a lot we have uncovered about the Indus Valley Civilisation. Such as figurines, weights and measures, buildings, and toys – it’s actually a vast chapter in the Ancient Indian History. Through these artefacts, we have come to some conclusions and theories about Harappan lifestyle, society, and economy.

We’ll be looking briefly about the Indus Valley Civilisation in this article.

By Archaeological Survey of India – https://www.indianculture.gov.in/mohenjo-daro-and-indus-civilization-being-official-account-archaeological-excavations-mohenjo-1 (Marshall, John; Mohenjo-daro and the Indus Civilisation, volume III, place XCVII), Fair use (Old-50), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?curid=68047108

This is the image of what historians have dubbed ‘The Priest King’. We don’t know what kind of a person they were – it is a theory based on the headgear and the clothing. Were there priests or kings in the Harappan Civilisation? Priest kings? Nobody knows, so far. Or maybe, he was just a rich man who loved to indulge in fancy jewellery and clothing. Who knew what fashion was at the time?

The next image is that of what historians have called ‘The Dancing Girl’. By the posture of her limbs, she is quite obviously dancing. She also has a lot of jewellery, so maybe she’s representing fashion trends during her time.

A 3D model of the Citadel and the Lower Town at Kalibangan, a Harappan site. Source: https://www.harappa.com/blog/kalibangan

We have also discovered that almost all the 1500 sites of the Indus Valley Civilisation found have been divided into two zones – or, in rare cases, three: The upper citadel and the lower town. It is assumed that the citadel is occupied by rich people and the lower town by common people. The citadel has, in most cases, been fortified.

The Indus Valley Civilisation is known for having a great sewage system, unlike cities of the Indian subcontinent to-day. Most of the cities found so far were organised, well-planned, with all the streets build at right angles to each other, like a grid, like the image above of the aerial view of the city of Mohenjodaro.

The two most important and well-known cities of the Indus Valley Civilisation are Harappa and Mohenjodaro – two cities that are situated along the Indus river. These are known to have been at the highest peak of civilisation.

This brings us to the three phases of this ancient civilisation – Early Harappan Phase, Mature Harappan Phase, and Late Harappan Phase. Of course, like all events in History, this division is not definitive; that is, these three phases do not have fixed time periods. The Early Harappan Phase was approximately between 3200 BCE and 2600 BCE; the mature phase was roughly between 2600 BCE and 1800 BCE; the late Harappan phase was around 1900 BCE to 1300 BCE.

By Avantiputra7 – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=33202416

Historians placed Harappa and Mohenjodaro in the Mature Phase of the civilisation. The cities of Lothal and Kalibangan show evidence of Early Phase.

That is all for to-day! We shall learn more about the Indus Valley Civilisation in another post!


(Dates of the Indus Valley Civilisation taken from: “The Ancient Indus Valley: New Perspectives” by Jane R McIntosh)